A. Fertilization techniques for spinach vary slightly depending on the cultivation season, but they all require adequate basal fertilizer and timely chasing fertilizer.
B. Fertilizer application
The spring spinach sowing early, the soil thawed 7-10 cm deep can be sown, so the whole ground fertilization are in the previous autumn before the freeze.
②Application of farmyard manure
The same applies 4000-5000 kg of farmyard manure per 667 m2. However then scatter it on the ground, turn it 20-25 cm deep and rake it flat to make a border.
Spinach does not tolerate high temperature, and it is difficult to cultivate summer spinach, so it is better to choose neutral clay soil.
④ Compost and chemical fertilizer
Apply a mixture of compost and chemical fertilizers as a base fertilizer, 3000-4000 kg of compost per 667 square meters. Apply 30-35 kg of calcium superphosphate, 20-25 kg of ammonium sulfate, 10-15 kg of potassium sulfate, turn the ground 20-25 cm deep and rake the ground.
Apply 4,000-5,000 kg of farmyard manure per 667 square meters during the hot and rainy season of autumn spinach sowing. Apply 25-30 kg of calcium superphosphate, turn the ground 20-25 cm deep and make a raised or flat bed.
⑥ Overwintering spinach
From sowing in autumn to harvesting in spring the following year, the growing period is as long as half a year. In addition to choosing soil that is deep, fertile, with high humus content and good fertilizer and water retention properties, more organic fertilizer should be applied than in other seasons.
It is appropriate to spread 5000 kg of well-rotted farmyard manure and 25-30 kg of calcium superphosphate per 667 square meters. Deeply turn 20-25 cm and plan again so that the soil and manure are mixed well and the soil is loosened. Thus it can promote seedling emergence and root development. It is advisable to have high beds in the south and flat beds in the north.
C. Timely fertilization
1. Spring spinach
Spring spinach from the seedling out of the ground to 2 real leaves flattened, generally do not irrigate fertilizer water, conducive to improve the soil temperature and root system activities. It is a good way to absorb the nutrients in the soil and to keep it wrinkled and breathable.
2. After the seedling stage
Enter the vigorous growth period, photosynthesis is enhanced, the root system fertilizer absorption water. Every 667 square meters of water chasing 15-20 kg of ammonium sulfate. Later, according to the soil moisture, discretionary quiet watering. Keep the soil moist, generally watering 3-5 times.
3. Summer spinach
In the nutritional growth period need to water 2-3 times to keep the soil moist.
4. Spinach single plant yield formation period
Because of the large amount of fertilizer needed, you can irrigate once with ammonium sulfate by water. The amount of 10-15 kg per 667 square meters, or leaf and spray 0.3% of urea.
5. Autumn spinach
The seedlings are in the hot and rainy season and growth is affected. Therefore the soil moisture is low, to water diligently, water less water. Thus, keep the soil moist and pay attention to drainage after the rain.
6. Seedling stage
In the early stage, fertilize with 0.3% urea or liquid fertilizer, after 3:00 pm.
7. Vigorous growth period
When the seedlings have 4-5 leaves, they enter the vigorous growth period and need a large amount of fertilizer. Therefore, according to the soil moisture timely irrigation, generally before the harvest irrigation 3-4 times.
8. Quick-acting fertilizer
The first two times of fast-acting fertilizers were applied with water, 20-25 kg of ammonium sulfate or 10-12 kg of urea per 667 square meters to promote rapid leaf growth.
9. Overwintering spinach
Overwintering spinach growing period up to 150-2l0 days, the growth period has stopped growth process. Therefore, fertilizer management is also divided into three stages: pre-winter, overwinter and early spring.
10. Pre-winter growth period
About 50-60 days, if the seedlings are too dense, to 2-3 true leaves when the seedlings need to be thinned. After thinning, fertilize once with irrigation.
11. Ammonium nitrate
Apply 10-15 kg of ammonium sulfate per 667 square meters with water. In the winter before the watering of “freezing water”, watering “freezing water” can be watered 1000-1500 kg per 667 square meters of manure dilution. Overwintering stop growing about 70-110 days, this period does not need to chase fertilizer.
12. Early spring growth period
30-40 days, before the return of green to remove dead grass and debris. When the spinach leaves are green and the heart leaves start to grow, irrigate the greening water. Generally irrigate 3-4 times before harvest and fertilize 2 times, each time 15-20 dry grams of ammonium sulfate per 667 square meters.
D. Land preparation and fertilization
After the previous crop harvest net land, timely shallow plowing to extinguish the recommendation, harrowing spikes to retain moisture. Then spread the well-rotted farmyard manure, about 5000 kg per mu. Deep plowing 23-27 cm, horizontal and vertical harrowing two times. After making the fertilizer and soil fully mixed, then harrow 1-2 times to make the soil fine and smooth.
1. Base fertilizer
Use farmyard manure with high nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content. Follow up fertilizer should be fast-acting nitrogen fertilizer. According to the test, every production
50 grams of spinach.
2. Three elements
The absorption of the three elements is: 200 grams of nitrogen, 100 grams of phosphorus and 150 grams of potassium.
3. Spinach yield estimation estimation
The plan is to produce 4000 kg of spinach per mu. When applying 5000 kg of circle as base fertilizer per mu you can mix 97.8 kg of calcium superphosphate with circle manure as base fertilizer.
4. Quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer
When applying quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer as a follow-up fertilizer, only 103.9 kg of ammonium bicarbonate or 38.4 kg of urea per mu is needed. Of course, the calculation of vegetable fertilizer requirements is a more complex issue, involving a wide range of aspects.
E. Autumn spinach Lai cultivation technology points
Spinach is native to Central Asia, introduced to China in the Han Dynasty, and has a long history of cultivation. It is one of the main sparse vegetables in autumn, winter and spring that are commonly cultivated in the north and south. It is rich in vitamin B, C, D and calcium, phosphorus, iron and other minerals, and also contains high protein, is a high nutritional value of the sparse vegetables.
①Spinach is cold but not heat resistant
In the short sunshine, mild and cool autumn and winter, especially bamboo is conducive to the growth of spinach leaf clusters. High yield, good quality, so spinach cultivation is mostly autumn and winter cultivation.
②Choose suitable varieties
You should choose resistant, heat-resistant, fast-growing varieties. The early fall sowing of early varieties, late fall sowing of late-maturing varieties. At present, most of the “all-purpose spinach” varieties are mainly cultivated.
③The actual fact is that you will be able to get a good deal on your own.
The general sowing period is in late August and early September. After sowing 20-30 days can be harvested in batches. It can also sown earlier in late July or delayed until the end of September.
④Cultivation of spinach
Most of the seeds are sown by direct seeding method, mainly by sowing, but also by strip sowing. The amount of spinach sown varies with the season of sowing seeds.
⑤ Early autumn sowing
The seeds can harvested in stages, and more seeds should used. Water the bottom water before sowing and cover with shade net after sowing to keep the soil moist for emergence. To prevent high temperature and heavy rain, shade can be built during the seedling period.
⑥Strengthen fertilizer and water management
Spinach does not have strict soil requirements and is easy to cultivate on clay loam, sandy loam soils for good yield. But the acid tolerance is weak, the soil pH below 5.5 or above 8 poor growth, cultivation should be sufficient base fertilizer, in the preparation of the ground when the application of compound fertilizer 30-40 kg per mu.
⑦After two true leaves
The first two times to apply quick-acting nitrogen fertilizer, later harvesting once, catch up with a quick-acting fertilizer. The ratio of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium absorption of spinach is 2:1:2.5, too much application of nitrate nitrogen fertilizer will make the nitrate content higher.
⑧The first thing you need to do is to get a good idea of what you’re looking for.
The fertilizer should chased after harvesting. Soil moisture must maintained at 70-80% of the field water holding capacity throughout the reproductive period.
⑨ Grasp the pest and disease control
Underground pests should killed before sowing and dropping seeds. During the long period, attention should paid to the control of insect pests such as snails, small vegetable moths and dipterocarp moths.
The first batch of autumn spinach can harvested above 15 cm in height, usually about 30 days after sowing, and then every 20 days or so, for a total of 2-3 times.