A. Peony as the “national flower” of China
Peony is also known as Luoyang flower and rich flower. It is a small deciduous perennial shrub. Due to its unique cultural heritage and ornamental properties, it has been developing rapidly at home and abroad in recent years. With the continuous expansion of Peony’s planting area, the situation of peony cultivation management and pest control has become increasingly serious.
B. Morphological characteristics of peony
1. Peony grows slowly
The roots are fleshy, thick and long, with a woody center, bipinnate leaves, and leaflets 4.5-8cm long.
2. Shape of peony
Broadly ovate to ovate-long elliptic, apex 3-5-lobed, base entire, leaves abaxially white-powdered, smooth and glabrous.
The flowers are solitary at the top of the branches, large, with a variety of flower types and 9 color families. The fruit matures in September.
3. Soil selection and land preparation
For planting Peony’s, it is recommended to use loose and fertile sandy loam soil with deep, sunny and well-drained soil.
4. Peony should planted
In high and dry terrain and side shade to prevent waterlogging and root rot. The soil should be neutral and slightly acidic, too acidic and alkaline soil is not suitable for Peony’s growth.
C. Peony planting season and method
Peonies must planted from early October to late November for the highest survival rate and strong growth the following year.
①Early planting of peony is better
Early planting has higher ground temperature, which can encourage Peony’s to develop new roots early. It is convenient for survival, overwintering and the growth of the following year.
②The later the peony is planted
The later the peony is planted, the weaker it grows in the second year, and even dies. Even if they survive, they can only gradually resume normal growth in the third year.
③Planting of peony
Peonies are usually propagated at the same time as the division of plants, regardless of whether they are planted in holes or trenches. At the same time, it should be ensured that the planting space is wide and deep, and apply sufficient organic fertilizer.
④Before planting peonies
Cut off the broken and diseased roots and soak them in 500-700 times of a mixture of methylisophos and methomyl (carbendazim can also used) for 10-20 minutes before planting.
⑤ After mulching the peony
The whole plant should also lifted upward slightly to make the root system evenly distributed. Then fill in the soil layer by layer.
⑥Generally, the first planted seedlings
Water thoroughly so that the roots and soil are closely combined. However, it should not overly wet, let alone waterlogged, in order to prevent rotten roots.
⑦ Cultivation density of peony
It depends on the purpose of cultivation. For long-term ornamental use, a spacing of 80-100cm between rows is appropriate.
D. Common propagation methods
1. Peony propagation by sowing seeds
It is a sexual reproduction method to reproduce offspring by seed or select new varieties. In the wild, peonies mainly reproduce offspring by seeds.
2. After long-term artificial cultivation
The stamens of peony degenerate and become petals, and most of them lose the ability to bear fruit. Therefore, asexual reproduction has become the main reproduction method to maintain the excellent traits of Peony’s .
3. Before planting peonies
Before sowing peonies, the soil must carefully organized and disinfected, and the land must deeply plowed and well fertilized.
4. After sowing peony
After 15-20 days, the Peony’s will start to take root and germinate from late February to early March of the following year. If there is little rain or drought, watering can done once in 10-15 days. After April, thin manure can applied with watering.
5. According to this method
Seedlings can started for grafting or transplanting after 2 years of sowing, and they can bloom one after another after 3-5 years.
E. Peony grafting propagation
1. Selection of rootstock
Generally speaking, there are two types of rootstock. One is wild peony, and the other is Peony’s root.
2. Selection of scion
The scion should selected from the robust plant on the one year old thick sprouting branch, its heart is solid, easy to send roots to survive after grafting.
3. The next best for the upper current year branches
Because of the strong buds full of current year branches containing more nutrients, conducive to wound healing and survival. The scion is generally about 6-10cm long with a strong terminal bud and one or several small side buds. The scion should cut and connected, not long put.
4. Peony grafting method
This method is much higher than the reproduction coefficient of the division method, especially for some valuable species with weak branching power.
5. Selection of rootstock
Usually, the fleshy roots of “rough” peony or Peony’s are used. The rootstock is about 2cm thick, 15-20cm long and with fibrous roots.
6. Practice shows that using
Peony roots as rootstock than Peony’s roots as rootstock, more conducive to the future division of the plant, and longer life.
7. Time of grafting
The time of grafting is usually from September to early October, and the plants are planted immediately after grafting.
F. Propagation of peony by division
Splitting is also root splitting. The whole it plant is dug up and separated from the intersection of root texture.
(1) According to the size of the original plant
Generally, every 3-4 branches is a daughter plant, and each plant has a more complete root system. Then, use a little sulfur powder and mud to smear and rub the wound on the root well, and plant it separately.
(2) Peony in Luoyang
Propagation is mostly carried out in the beginning of October, and no later than the end of November.
(3) Timely division of peony
Peonies have many new roots and will grow vigorously in the coming year. If the plant is planted too late, the root growth will very weak in that year. Few and short, the plant will develop even weaker or even die in the coming year.
G. Pest and disease control
Pest and disease control is the key link to ensure the quality of peony seedlings and improve the ornamental quality and commercial value. Prevention and integrated control are the principles of pest and disease control.
1. Diseases affecting peonies
Peony red spot disease, peony gray mold, peony brown spot disease, Peony’s anthracnose, peony rust disease, Peony’s virus disease, peony ring spot disease, etc.
2. Control methods
From late March to early April, spray carbendazim, deltamethrin, tolbutazin, etc., and from May to August, spray lime multiplier Bordeaux solution every 20 days or so.
3. Insect pests affecting
Underground pests such as root knot nematodes and golden needle insects, and aboveground pests such as moths and moths.
4. Control methods of underground pests
Every year, the roots of peonies are irrigated with 500 times of methylisophos in mid-late March and early-mid September respectively, or around the roots of peonies.
5. The operation method is
If you have automatic irrigation equipment, you can use the more efficient and faster water-soluble fertilizer.