A、Pre-sowing preparation of cantaloupe
1、Land selection and preparation
The cantaloupe field should be recreational land or abandoned land. The crop rotation period for cantaloupe is more than five years. The previous crop is suitable for food crops. Cucurbits, legumes and eggplant crops are not allowed to be planted around cantaloupe fields.
The soil should be of medium fertility or above. Soil texture should be loamy or sandy loam. The organic matter content of the soil should be more than 1.0%. Quick-acting phosphorus content 10ppm, quick-acting potassium content 150ppm, alkaline nitrogen 50ppm, total salt content about 0.5%, soil pH between 7~8.
The melon field is best plowed in ambient and autumn years ago. Plowing depth of 25 cm or more, and winter irrigation. This is good for alkali pressure and soil maturation. And it can eliminate weeds and overwintering pests.
2、Applying base fertilizer
After the beginning of spring, draw a trench line along the contour of cantaloupe field. The distance between ditches is 4~4.5 meters, and the length of ditch is not more than 30 meters. Open the fertilizer ditch 60 cm from the center line of the melon ditch on both sides, and the depth of the ditch is more than 25 cm. Each mu of high-quality rotted organic fertilizer 2000 kg, plus an appropriate amount of chemical fertilizer mixed evenly. Fertilizer dosage: ammonium nitrate 20 kg, three materials calcium superphosphate 25 kg. Or 20 kg of diammonium phosphate, 15 kg of ammonium nitrate, 50 kg of humic acid compound fertilizer. Or humic acid compound fertilizer 100 kg. Fertilizer is applied into the ditch and mixed with soil. The compound fertilizer that is more used in the market nowadays is the one produced by Nagric.
Make a trench along the center line of the cantaloupe ditch. The ditch should be 0.5~0.6 meters deep, 0.9~1 meter wide at the top and 30 cm wide at the bottom. The melon ditch needs to be flat, straight, and consistent in the draught line. And no large soil and plant roots.
3、Irrigation before sowing
Cantaloupe is irrigated 5~7 days before sowing. It is the key to ensure the seedlings of cantaloupe are in full bloom. Be sure to water enough, water thoroughly. Generally, it is more than 80 square/mu.
We generally choose 70-90 cm wide transparent film or silver gray film to cover both sides of the melon ditch. 10 cm from the bottom of the ditch along the ditch wall upwards, requiring the film close to the ground. It should be flattened, pressed and compacted with the trench wall. Generally use the film first and then sow the seeds. In order to avoid too late, the frost to cantaloupe seedlings caused harm, can dig the hole sowing and then belly film. However, the film should be broken in time to free cantaloupe seedlings. Otherwise, it is advisable to cause burning seedlings and lack of plants.
5、Cantaloupe seed treatment
We do a good job of selecting cantaloupe seeds before sowing. Seed purity and seed germination rate should be above 95%. We use 200 times formalin to soak the seeds for 2 hours, and then rinse with water 2~3 times. In areas where virus disease is serious, seeds can be mixed with trisodium phosphate 2% aqueous solution or seeds can be sterilized by dry heat. That is, the treatment is first carried out at a dry heat constant temperature of 40℃ for 24 hours, then dry heat treatment at 70℃ for 5 days, and then germination and sowing.
To prevent underground pests. After the above seed treatment, the seeds can then be sprayed evenly with 50% zinc thiophos emulsion 100 times. Put in a cool place and pile smother for 1~2 hours before sowing.
B、The sowing of cantaloupe
Cantaloupe needs to be sown at the right time. Generally, after the late frost, the seeds can be sown when the soil is 10 cm deep under the surface and the ground temperature is stable at about 14℃. For melon fields covered with film, the seeds can be sown around April 20. If you don’t use film cover, the sowing period can be moved back. For cantaloupe ready for storage, the sowing period can be delayed until around May 20. Sowing can be done by perforated holes, along the ditch watermark line of cantaloupe, digging holes by hand. The hole distance depends on the ripeness of the variety.
Early and medium-ripening varieties, single vine whole plant spacing of 0.45 meters. For medium-late and late-maturing varieties, the plant spacing is 0.6 meters for double vine grooming. The sowing depth depends on the soil texture and soil moisture. Soil sandy, moisture deficiency, can be properly sown deep, mulch slightly thick. Soil clay heavy, moisture conditions are better, sowing shallow, mulch thin. General sowing depth 3 ~ 4 cm. Sow 2~3 seeds per hole.
C、The field management of cantaloupe
1、Checking seedlings and replenishing seeds
Generally, seedlings can emerge 5-7 days after sowing. Within 3 days of seedling emergence should immediately check the seedling replenishment. The replanted cantaloupe seeds should be seed disinfection. Then, soak the seeds to germinate, cantaloupe seeds show white can be replanted.
2、Interplanting and seedling setting
Start inter-planting when cantaloupe grows 1~2 true leaves. When interplanting, it is necessary to remove weak and diseased seedlings. When the cantaloupe has 4-5 true leaves, set the seedlings, leaving 1 healthy seedling in each hole. In case of precision sowing, we can finish interplanting and setting the seedlings at once when the cantaloupe has 4 true leaves.
3、Mid-tillage and weeding
The mid-tillage and loosening of the soil can not only improve the ground temperature, but also preserve moisture and eradicate weeds. For cantaloupe fields that do not have mulch, when the seedlings come out, we can use a hand shovel to loosen the soil and monopolize the soil around the seedlings. At the same time, combine with weed control. Till the soil to a depth of 20 cm or more, and weed the cantaloupe seedlings 2~3 times before they reach the vine. At the same time, combine with mid-tillage. Pull out the weeds around the seeding holes and seal the holes tightly at any time.
Invert the vine when cantaloupe grows 5~6 true leaves. When inverting the vine, we gently pick up the soil on the side of the rootstock against the border to make a small groove 5~7cm deep. Then, we reverse the vine of the melon into the slot in a smooth manner. At the same time, wipe off the 1st and 2nd lateral vines at the base of the stem. At the same time, we cultivate 10~20 cm of loose dry soil at the base of the rootstock.
5、Vine and melon
According to the variety of cantaloupe, we determine the vine and melon retention. For early and medium-ripening varieties, we can use single vine method. For medium to late varieties, we generally use the double vine grooming method. The specific grooming method, we can according to the local growing melon habits.
The cantaloupe field covered with film is generally no longer chasing organic fertilizer. If the base fertilizer is not enough, you can chase part of the cake fertilizer or chemical fertilizer. Fertilization takes place before the female flowers open. Dig a hole between two melon seedlings, 20 cm below the edge of the trench. Apply 20 kg of diammonium phosphate, 5 kg of urea and 150 kg of oil residue per mu. After the first fruit harvest, a second fertilization can be carried out.
The number of times of irrigation and the amount of irrigation, we can depend on the soil quality, the size of the melon trench and the height of the water table. During the seedling stage, while maintaining a certain temperature of the soil, appropriate water control squatting to facilitate the rooting of seedlings. In general, the seedlings are irrigated 1~2 times during the seedling stage, and the field water holding capacity is 65%. In the cantaloupe field cultivated by ground cover, generally no irrigation before the opening of male flowers. The first irrigation at the beginning of flowering, and 2~3 times at the flowering stage. Field water holding capacity of 80% is appropriate. The fruit expansion period requires more water, generally irrigate once every 7-10 days. Water holding capacity of 85% is appropriate.
At this time the temperature is high, in order to reduce the occurrence of epidemic mildew, should avoid noon watering. And to water less, watering depth of 1/2 to 1/3 of the depth of the furrow is appropriate. Watering 1~2 times during fruit ripening, the depth of watering should not exceed 1/2 of the depth of the ditch. The field water holding capacity should be 55%. Stop watering 10 days before fruit harvesting. It is better to water the melon field with well water. Irrigation requires a single furrow irrigation can not string irrigation, avoid diffusion and string irrigation.
8、Control of pests and diseases
Implementation of prevention-oriented, integrated control policy. On the basis of mastering the existing pest and disease laws, understand and grasp the interrelationship between pests and crops, environmental conditions. By changing the ecological conditions, take integrated control measures. So as to achieve the purpose of inhibiting the occurrence of pests and diseases, reducing or controlling the damage. On the basis of carefully implementing the above measures, it is also necessary to cooperate with chemical control norms for prevention and control.
9、Harvesting of cantaloupe
Timely harvesting is the key link to ensure the quality of commercial cantaloupe. The central sugar content of commercial cantaloupe must reach 13% or more at harvesting. We should harvest lightly and minimize mechanical damage. Leave 1.5~2 cm long stalk when harvesting. Melon piles need shade to avoid bursts of sunlight and reduce losses. Strictly prohibit raw and rotten melons on the market.