Begonia is a perennial evergreen herbaceous flower. Generally annual begonias planted in the Northeast. In landscaping, we use begonias in flower bed arrangements with excellent results. At present, it has become one of the most important flowers for flowerbeds. It has the advantages of rounded shape, dense flowers, easy to match with other bedding plants, and long ornamental period. Therefore, it is becoming more and more popular.
A、Selection of begonia varieties
The leaves of begonias fall into two main categories. One of them turns red-green after receiving sunlight and the other turns red-copper. The flower colors are red, peach, pink, white and so on. The flower shape further divided into heavy and single petals. Heavy petal varieties are not easy to pick seeds, mostly cuttings to nutrient propagation. Commercially available varieties are almost hybrid F1 varieties, which are robust in nature. Common varieties are Olin series, Hi-Fi series, Laurel series, copper leaf series, Ambassador series, Olympic, dance series, Chuanqi, pink piano, vodka, etc..
Begonias often propagate by three methods: sowing, cutting and dividing. If cultivated commercially, then we all use seed propagation. The fertility period of begonia is over 120 days. In the Baicheng area, the nursery period for spring open field cultivation takes place from December to January. For the seedbed soil, we need to sift and level it. We evenly scatter the seeds into the seedbed and then flatten and keep the soil moist. We cover it with plastic film. Begonias need to shade throughout the seeding period. Also keep the room temperature 20~25℃.
C、Management of begonia seedlings
Begonia germinates 1 week after sowing. Keep the room temperature at 20-22°C at this time. In the afternoon, we sprayed the seedbed twice with a sprayer to maintain moist soil in the seedbed. We shade the seedbeds properly and maintain a low light environment. When two true leaves appear on the begonia, increase the light in the seedbed and interrupt the seedlings in time. When begonias have 4 true leaves, seedlings should be divided. The nutrient soil for seedling division is garden soil, charcoal soil and organic fertilizer. The ratio is 5:3:2.
We mix the nutrient soil thoroughly and then pot it for transplanting. The size of nutrient bowl is 10×10, too small will affect the growth of seedlings. After the seedlings are divided, water in time and keep the room temperature 22~28℃. Light should not be too strong at this time, and full sunlight should be given two days after the seedlings are divided. The newly transplanted begonia seedlings should not be watered too much. Too much watering will cause root rot and pests and diseases. We usually water a second time after a week depending on the weather conditions. Fertilization is usually not done after the seedlings are divided. After half a month, we apply liquid fertilizer one to two times according to the condition of begonia seedlings. Catch up application every 10 days.
The open field planting period of begonia in Baisheng area is from May 20 to June 1. It is easy to suffer from low temperature and cold damage too early. While the planting site should be deeply tilled and prepared in advance. First of all, we rake and harrow the land. Then, we apply well-rotted organic fertilizer. Organic fertilizer contains a large amount of humus and organic matter, which can provide various nutrients for flowers. It also improves the effectiveness of insoluble sulfate in the soil. Reduce the fixation of phosphorus by the soil. It is important for improving soil fertility and soil structure.
Commonly used organic fertilizers include human manure and urine, livestock manure and urine, poultry manure, stable manure, compost, green manure, cake manure, peat, grass ash, etc. Organic fertilizer is rich in organic matter, comprehensive nutrients, and has a long effect period. The application amount is 1~1.5 tons per mu.
E、Management of begonia after planting
1、Water and fertilizer management of begonia
After planting begonia, we need to water the seedling water once immediately. And the water should be sufficient and thorough. Later, we water at the right time according to the weather conditions, but the amount of water should not be too much. Too much water is prone to rotten roots, rotten buds and rotten branches. While after planting and slowing down, we apply liquid fertilizer every 10 days. At present, the more water-soluble fertilizer on the market is produced by Nagric.
2、Disease and pest control of begonia
The main diseases of begonia are stem rot, sudden collapse disease, leaf spot disease, and bacterial disease damage. We can use tolbutazin, chlorothalonil, etc. to control them.While insect pests mainly affect the leaves and stems of begonia. They include thrips, leaf miner, etc. The agents used are dichlorvos, chlorantraniliprole and other targeted pesticides.