Broccoli is a high-grade health vegetable with full color and flavor. It is also a best-selling product in the international market. Now it has become a high-efficiency vegetable for export and domestic sales in China.
Broccoli morphology, growth habits and cauliflower is basically similar. But the growth is strong, heat and cold resistance are stronger. The broccoli plant is tall. The flowering stems emerge after growing more than 20 leaves. The tops of the flowers are borne in tightly packed clusters in the form of globular clusters of buds. The flower buds are lime green, so they are also called cymbidium. The leaves are blue-green, gradually turning to dark blue-green, with increased wax powder. The petiole is narrow and long. There are two kinds of leaf shapes: broad and long leaves.
B、The broccoli seedling management
The main management of this period is to cool down and moisturize, which can promote early seedling. In addition to shade netting to shade down the temperature, morning and evening must also be drenched once. This will prevent underground pests from chewing off the broccoli seedlings. When the broccoli is planted, we spread the Miral evenly on the soil surface. About 7 days after planting, we apply humanure or 2%-3% urea in water. This will promote plant growth and prevent and reduce the occurrence of diseases. Spray a diluted solution of carbendazim about 10 days after planting.
C、Management of broccoli rosette period
This is the period when broccoli is in its peak of nutritional growth and must be provided with sufficient fertilizer. This can make the stems and leaves grow faster and lay a good nutritional foundation to capture high yield.
During this period, we need to chase fertilizer 2 times. The first time is when the broccoli starts to grow rapidly. We use a small hoe to apply urea in the holes between the broccoli plants, about 15 kg per mu.
The second fertilization is done before the broccoli is sealed. When the heart leaves of broccoli start to look like screwed hearts, we combined with weeding to make shallow furrows between the rows. Then, we apply the fertilizer and then cultivate the soil. Apply 20~25kg of compound fertilizer or 25kg of peanut bran per mu. At present, the more compound fertilizer used in the market, is produced by Nagric company.
2、Shaping and pruning
If possible, it is better to apply humanure urine every 7~10 days during this period. The watering should be sufficient in the early stage of rosette of broccoli. This can meet the needs of rapid growth and development of the plant. When the broccoli is in a group, control the watering properly. This will promote the development of underground root system. We need to remove the side branches of broccoli in time. This can promote the main flower bulb formation.
3、Prevent pests and diseases
Also pay attention to the prevention of pests and diseases, especially to the damage of chard moth, vegetable pink butterfly, black rot and soft rot. Small moths can be controlled by spraying with insecticide dilution from the peak of egg hatching to the larval stage. The butterfly can be prevented by spraying with a diluted solution of quicklime.
D、Management of broccoli bulb phase
In order to promote the transformation of nutritional growth to reproductive growth, it is beneficial to the formation of broccoli flower bulbs. During this period, we should control the nitrogen fertilizer and apply phosphorus, potassium fertilizer and boron, molybdenum and other micronutrients. During this period, we should control nitrogen and apply phosphorus, potassium, boron and molybdenum fertilizers. Apply 15 kg of potassium chloride and 15 kg of compound fertilizer per mu. To reduce yellowing on the surface of broccoli bulbs and hollowing of flower stems, and to delay plant aging. We usually spray the foliage with bandage sand and ammonium molybdate solution during the flower bulb formation period of broccoli. Spray every 1 week, 2 to 3 times in a row.
During the flower bulb formation period, the soil in the field should be kept moist. Remove diseased leaves, old leaves and pest control in time. Each broccoli plant should have 3~4 strong side flowering branches, and the rest of the side flowering branches should be removed.
E、The broccoli harvest period management
During this period, we should pay attention to the timely removal of diseased leaves and old leaves, as well as moisture control. In case of acid rain or foggy weather, we should sprinkle water in time to wash away the foggy water and acid rain. This can reduce the decay of flower bulbs. The suitable harvesting period for broccoli is short. If the harvest is too late, the flower bulbs will be loose, the buds will turn yellow and the quality will be reduced. However, if the harvest is too early, the flower bulbs will be small and the yield will be low.
Generally, when we touch the bud particles with our hands, the bud particles start to loosen a little or the bud particles at the edge of the flower bulb are slightly loose, and the surface of the flower bulb is tight and flat without bump is the suitable time for harvesting. When we harvest broccoli, we need to choose a sunny day in the early morning or late afternoon.
When harvesting, we cut the flower bulbs together with the 10 cm long fat and tender flower stems, put them in a cool place away from light and pack them for market as soon as possible. Those that are not marketed in time must be quickly stored at low temperatures. Side flower ball cultivation, should also be in the main flower ball after harvesting fertilizer once. Each mu about 15 kg of compound fertilizer. When the side florets grow to about 5 cm in diameter, then harvest.
F、Fertilizer and water management for broccoli
Generally, when cultivating broccoli, 50-60% fertilizer used as the base fertilizer. 40-50% fertilizer chasing. For early maturing varieties, apply more fertilizer as base fertilizer, and apply fertilizer earlier. For late maturing varieties, apply less fertilizer. When fertilizing, we need to apply it in stages according to the broccoli fertility process. It is not advisable to apply too early. Each mu of field needs about 50 kg of imported compound fertilizer. Broccoli has a high water requirement. After planting, water the plants well. After the rosette period, the foliage evaporation is the largest, and the water should be increased appropriately. During the rosette stage of broccoli, the humidity in the field should not be too high and should be controlled appropriately.