The avocado is light in flavor, slightly fragrant and edible after peeling. The flesh of the fruit is relatively hard, less watery and has a smell of butter. Avocado, also known as oil pear, ladder pear, Ngapoi pear.
A、Avocado cultivation cover
Avocados generally grow in tropical rainforests. High temperature and high humidity environment to make it grow fast. If the environmental conditions are not available, the growth is slow. Therefore, most of the foreign avocado cultivation emphasis on the early stage of the avocado tree near the grass or planting green manure. And mulch a lot near the root zone. We increased topsoil organic matter through mulching to create a rainforest inter-rooted environment similar to that of its origin. Stabilize inter-root ecological conditions. This will suppress root rot disease.
Therefore, it is particularly important to disk young avocado trees from the time they are young until the tree itself can form a mulch layer through leaf drop and before root rot occurs. Starting mulching in the winter and replenishing the thickness in the spring will result in a good mulch layer by summer. Inter-root mulching also reduces soil water evaporation and mitigates damage to avocado from dry heat. It lowers soil temperature in summer and raises it in winter. It increases soil organic matter, reduces weeds, and prevents soil erosion on slopes. But the rainy season to prevent covering the soil too wet.
B、Avocado cultivation fertilization
Avocado planted after 1 to 4 years of the young tree period, is a period of high yield and quality cultivation of avocado to lay the foundation. Fertilization should be reasonable to promote the rapid growth of young trees. The signs of lack of fertilizer in avocado trees are severe leaf drop and branch dieback. The reasonable fertilization of young avocado trees and fruiting trees should be based on soil fertility, tree age, plant growth or growth and fruiting situation. We generally need a balanced application of complete fertilizers such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. It is best to guide fertilizer application by nutrient analysis of the soil and leaves.
The root system of young avocado trees is susceptible to nitrogen fertilizer injury. And more nitrogen fertilizer tends to make branches and leaves grow and delay fruiting. We need to pay attention to the application of nitrogen fertilizer. In foreign countries, each plant annual application of pure nitrogen 110 ~ 450g, with the age of the tree increases every year. Half of which is organic fertilizer as nitrogen fertilizer. In the first year after planting, a small amount should be applied regularly. In areas with frost, it is advisable to stop applying nitrogen fertilizer in autumn and winter. And more phosphorus and potassium fertilizer. This will prevent chilling damage to the winter tips. Calcium superphosphate is 900g per plant per year. potassium sulfate is 1.8~2.2kg per plant per year.
C、Avocado cultivation drainage and irrigation water
Avocado annual evergreen. The soil between the roots needs to remain moist throughout the year. Moreover, avocadoes become very sensitive to soil drought. Once the lack of water, the physiological function is hindered, the tree is weak. Resulting in leaf and fruit drop, winter cold resistance is reduced. Therefore, appropriate irrigation is required during drought. From fruit set to fruit ripening, it is vital to maintain soil moisture. The first month of fruit set, if drought, the young fruit will be seriously shed.
Irrigation should be just right, not only to be sufficient, but also never too much. Generally to wet the soil is appropriate. If too wet, it will aggravate the root rot, and will reduce the content of soluble solids in the fruit. It is best to use sprinkler or drip irrigation, diffuse irrigation may make the root rot. Drip irrigation can save 50% to 60% of water. If the leaves start to curl in drought, canopy sprinkling can also be done. Pay attention to drainage during the rainy season.
D、Avocado tree pruning
Avocado trees generally grow more slowly. But generally do not need too much care can grow. Young avocado trees need more care and a small amount of pruning compared to adult trees. This will help stimulate and accelerate the growth of the avocado tree. Before pruning aimlessly, you need to carefully understand some techniques and rules of pruning avocado trees.
1、Timely pruning of diseased branches
Cut off the diseased branches on the avocado tree at any time. This will stimulate growth and prevent possible future damage to the avocado tree. The exception is branches damaged due to freezing, as these branches look as if they have died in winter. However, it is possible to regenerate them after the spring. If you are sure that the cold has caused necrosis of a branch, wait until spring before pruning it. This way you can confirm how to prune and how much to prune.
2、Prune the branches wisely
Prune avocado fruit trees conservatively. Unless the branches have been necrotic or damaged. Reasonably cut off unhealthy green branches and green leaves. Except for early spring and late summer, other times can be pruned avocado tree branches.
3、Rational pruning of side branches
We can stimulate growth by cutting those dense, laterally growing lateral branches in this way. If the large branches are cut, the whole avocado tree will be stimulated to grow. But large branches can be cut only if absolutely necessary. The pruning of small branches will stimulate the growth of the tree around the pruned branch.
4、Prune regularly to control growth
Preventing the irregular growth that usually occurs in avocado trees can be done by pruning them as they grow. You can control the growth of an avocado tree in the following ways. This includes cutting off the top branches or pinching off the tips of upright shoots. Repeating these steps regularly during the first few years of avocado tree cultivation can help avocado trees grow into a firm, well-proportioned shape.