A、The characteristics of cucumber
Cucumber growth potential, resistance to heavy crop, fast growth rate of melon. Good melon, melon stick type, white thorns, prickly tumor obvious, melon handle short. The melon is about 35 cm long and weighs about 250 grams per melon. Dark green color, glossy, thick flesh, dense texture, less deformed melon, good commerciality. Strong disease resistance, the main vine in the early stages of the melon mainly, more melon back. In the middle and later stages, the main and lateral branches have the ability to bear melons. Acres of yield up to 6000 kg or more.
B、The choice of cucumber varieties
We should choose high yield, disease resistance, good commerciality of cucumber planting. Suitable varieties for spring open field cultivation are: Jinchun 4, China Agricultural University No. 11, China Agricultural University No. 12, Bomi 4, Drit 902, China Agricultural No. 12, etc.. The varieties suitable for autumn open field cultivation include Jin You 3, Jin Yan 2, Tangshan Autumn Melon, etc.
The age of cucumber seedlings is about 35 days. The standard of strong seedlings: the cotyledons are intact, with 3-5 true leaves. The internodes are short, and the angle between the petiole and the main vine is 45 degrees. The leaves are dark green, the leaves are thick and the stems are sturdy. The root system is well-developed and free from diseases and pests.
D、Fertilization of cucumber for border
Fertilize the ground and apply 5 cubic meters of well-rotted organic fertilizer. Calcium superphosphate 25~30 kg or diammonium phosphate 10~15 kg. We tilled the borders before planting cucumbers. The border is 1.2 m wide and more than 15 cm high. And cover with ground cover.
E、Planting of cucumber
1、Determination of cucumber planting period
We planted cucumbers as early as possible under the premise of ensuring that they do not freeze after planting. Generally in late April, early May planting. The minimum night temperature is higher than 5℃. 0~10cm soil temperature is higher than 12℃. Autumn open-field cucumber using the method of direct seeding.
4000~4500 plants / mu, small and large rows planting. Small row spacing 40 cm, large row spacing 80 cm. Plant spacing of 25-30 cm. We generally use the dark water method of cucumber planting.
After the cucumber is planted, we need to insert the frame early. This can prevent the wind to draw seedlings. The planting frame can be a flower frame or herringbone frame. It should be about 8~10cm from the roots.
②Tie the vine
We usually use the “8” method to tie the vine. This will prevent the cucumber stems and vines from sagging. Tie every 2~3 nodes. We need to do it in the afternoon, as the vine is easy to break in the morning. The tightness of tying should be to suppress the strong and support the weak. For the strong cucumber, it needs to be tied tightly. And make the growing points consistent in height.
③Whole branch and pinch the tip
For cucumber with main vine, we should remove all the lateral branches. For cucumbers with side vines, we should leave one or two leaves to pinch the tips after the cucumbers are set. And knock off all the tendrils. When the stem exceeds the head of the rack, we need to pinch the tip in time. This will promote the growth of the lower melon. At the same time, you can also take the method of twisting the tip to inhibit the growth of the upper part.
④Fertilizer and water management
We need to water and mid-till in time. The amount and frequency of water intake can depend on the weather and fertility period. Slow watering is done 5~7 days after planting. Water control, mid-tillage and squatting before sitting melon. When the cucumber grows 10~12cm, water the melon. Water every 5~7 days during the fruiting period. The principle of fertilizer is light before and heavy after, a small number of times. Fertilizer is applied after the cucumber is seated. The fertilizer is applied after the cucumber is harvested. We advocate the use of organic fertilizer chasing fertilizer. At present, the market with more water-soluble fertilizer, is produced by the company Nagric.
F、The late management of cucumber
Cucumber is a temperature-loving crop, not cold, but also not tolerate high temperatures. Its growth temperature for the day 25 ° C ~ 32 ° C, 14 ° C ~ 16 ° C at night. 10 ° C day and night temperature difference is conducive to the growth of cucumbers. The root system of cucumber is very sensitive to temperature, the suitable ground temperature is 20°C ~ 23°C. In principle, the ground temperature should be maintained above 15°C. When the ground temperature is below 12°C, the root system does not stretch, root hairs stop occurring, and water and fertilizer absorption is inhibited. This can lead to stunted above-ground growth and yellowing of leaves. Even composted roots lead to the death of cucumber plants.
Cucumber planting within 7 days without ventilation. Keeping warm and moisturizing can promote the rapid survival of cucumber seedlings. Then, we can ventilate, change the air and see the light at the right time according to weather changes. When the temperature is stable at about 18 degrees, you can completely uncover the shed management.
We generally use the principle of thin fertilizer and diligent application when chasing fertilizer. After the cucumber planting, can be applied to the seedling fertilizer 1 to 2 times. Each time to apply dilute manure water 500 ~ 700kg per mu or urea liquid. This can promote the root growth of cucumber.
Spring rainfall, we need to pay attention to clearing ditches to prevent flooding. This can reduce the impact of water pouring and reduce the incidence of cucumber. If there is a drought, then we can combine with the timely watering of fertilizer. Or irrigation runner water. This can prevent soil drought affect the root development of cucumber.
Cucumbers like light, light enough to help improve production. But the ability to tolerate low light is strong. In winter and spring protected cultivation can still achieve high yields. Cucumber seedlings, we give 8 ~ 11 hours of short daylight is conducive to promote female flower differentiation.
Common cucumber, the general female flowers open 7~10 days. Melon length 25 ~ 35 cm, the horizontal diameter of 3.5 ~ 4.5 cm can be harvested. Fruit cucumber, the general female flowers open 6 ~ 9 days. The melon can be harvested when it is 17~20 cm long and 2.5~3 cm thick. When harvesting, we use scissors to cut the stalk of the melon. This will prevent damage to the seedlings. Also, we need to pay attention to lightly holding and gently placing.