A. Fertilizer is the food of the plant
The date palm is a plant with a long life cycle, growing permanently in one place. Each year, growth and fruiting consume a certain amount of nutrients, which are absorbed from the soil and manufactured by photosynthesis in the leaves.
B. Reasons for low yield of date palm
It is that some date palms are not fertilized and are caused by lack of nutrients.
1. High yield of date palm
Fertilizer must applied to date palms every year to improve soil fertility. It is important to meet the nutritional needs of jujube trees for growth and results, and to promote normal fertility. Early fruiting, early yielding, high and stable yielding, in order to bring into play the proper production capacity of jujube trees. It can also enhance tree potential, prolong fruiting years and tree life span, and improve disease resistance and ability to resist adverse environment.
2.Application of precise fertilization techniques
It is the main fertilizer for jujube tree fertility and should account for 60%-70% of the total fertilizer applied.
3.Types of date palm
There are various kinds of livestock and poultry fertilizers, human manure and urine, compost, green manure, cake fertilizer, grass ash, etc.
4.The base fertilizer for date palm is complete fertilizer
It contains not only the main elements required for the fertility of jujube trees, but also a large amount of trace elements.
5. Application of base fertilizer
It can improve the fertility of the soil and soil structure. It can promote the activities of soil organisms and lay a good material foundation for the growth and fruiting of jujube trees.
6.Fertilization period of date palm
From the maturity of jujube fruit to before the land freezes, it is better to apply early after the harvest of jujube fruit, generally in the northern jujube area in the first half of October. This is because the leaves are not yet aged and can still photosynthesize to create organic nutrients and increase the accumulation of nutrients.
7. ground temperature is still high
The soil humidity is high, the root system has not yet stopped growing, and the fertilizer has a longer time to decompose in the soil. It is convenient for date palm buds, bud differentiation, branch growth, flowering and fruiting to absorbed and used in the following spring.
8.Autumn of date palm without base fertilizer
In the spring of next year, after the soil has thawed, you should apply the fertilizer as soon as possible, and the spring fertilizer can combined with some quick-acting phosphorus fertilizer, so as to bring into play the fertilizer effect early.
9.Fertilization of date palm
The growth period of jujube trees is short, and the budding, bud differentiation, branch growth, flowering and fruit setting periods overlap in the early growth period. In addition to the basic fertilizer, it is necessary to apply quick-acting fertilizer during the growth period.
10.Common fertilizers for date palm
Ammonium carbonate, ammonium nitrate, urea, diammonium phosphate, compound fertilizer, rotted human manure and urine, etc.
C. According to the growth characteristics of jujube trees
Before the flowering period, nitrogen fertilizer is the main fertilizer. After the young fruiting period, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers should be the main fertilizers, and generally three times a year.
①The first time is during the budding period.
This time, fertilizer can supplement the shortage of nutrients in the tree’s reserve, which is beneficial to the budding, bud differentiation, branch growth, flowering and fruit setting of jujube trees.
Ammonium carbonate, urea, ammonium nitrate, and well-rotted human manure and urine can applied.
③The second time in the young fruit stage after flowering
Jujube trees have a large amount of flowers and a long flowering period, and flowering and fruit set consume a lot of nutrients. Moreover, it contradicts with the nutritional growth of branches and leaves. Fertilizer in this period can supplement the demand for nutrition of each organ and reduce physiological fruit drop.
For example, compound fertilizer, diammonium phosphate fertilizer, rotted human manure and so on.
⑤ The third time in the fruit expansion period
This time, fertilization can promote fruit cell division. Increase fruit size, reduce late fruit drop and improve yield and quality.
⑥ Fertilizer type
The main fertilizer is phosphorus and potassium, and calcium superphosphate, diammonium phosphate, compound fertilizer and well-rotted human manure and urine can applied.
D. Fertilization outside the root
According to the characteristics of fertilizer requirements of jujube trees in each reproductive stage, dissolve and dilute quick-acting fertilizers to a suitable concentration. Before 10:00 a.m. and after 5:00 p.m., spray evenly on the branches, leaves, flowers and fruits of the tree canopy. To supplement the shortage of tree nutrition and meet the demand for nutrition in different fertility stages of jujube trees.
E. Foliar spray fertilizer
However, it has the characteristics of fertilizer saving, water saving, labor saving, fast fertilizer absorption and high utilization rate. Therefore, the investment is low and the effect is good.
(1) After spraying fertilizer
Firstly, the fertilizer solution can be absorbed directly into the leaves through the stomata in a short period of time, so it is observed that 2-3 days after spraying urea.
Green color obviously deepened, chlorophyll content increased, photosynthesis enhanced. Photosynthetic products increase, the effect on the growth and results of date palm trees is very significant.
(3) Foliar spraying
Foliar spraying can be carried out from the time the leaves of jujube trees spread to the time they fall, before the flowering period (including the flowering period) and from the post-harvest development period to the ripening period, and is mainly based on phosphorus and potassium fertilizers.
(4) Commonly used fertilizers
For example, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium superphosphate, grass ash, potassium sulfate, potassium chloride, etc.
(5) Foliar spray fertilizer
First of all, the fertilization effect is short-lived and cannot replace soil fertilization. Therefore, it can only be used as a supplement to soil fertilization.
(6) Fertilization amount
For example, the amount of fertilizer applied varies depending on the size of the tree, the strength of the tree, the type of fertilizer, how much fruit is produced and the fertility of the soil.
Large trees, weaker trees, trees with more fruits, trees with lower soil fertility and poorer fertilizer quality should be applied more. On the contrary, the fertilizer can applied sparingly, to achieve scientific fertilization and economic fertilization.
(8) Under certain conditions
the yield of jujube trees will increase with the increase of fertilizer, but the more fertilizer is not the better. After a certain limit, the amount of fertilizer applied will not increase the yield, but will decrease. It causes a waste of fertilizer and affects the economic benefits of dates.
(9) Understanding the nutrition of the tree
Determine the economic and effective amount of fertilizer application to avoid blind application of fertilizer in production in order to improve the efficiency of fertilizer use.
(10) The best economic fertilization program for jujube trees
The types of fertilizers and the amount of fertilizers needed for fertilization vary according to the season. The fertilizer is mainly nitrogen fertilizer during the germination and flowering period, and 0.5-1kg of fast-acting nitrogen fertilizer is applied to promote the growth of branches and leaves, improve photosynthetic efficiency and increase photosynthetic products. For the flower bud differentiation and flowering fruit ready material preparation.
(11) Post-flowering fruit development period of date palm
Fast-acting nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium compound fertilizer, special fertilizer for fruit trees and well-rotted human manure and urine are suitable. Apply 1-2kg of compound fertilizer or 30-50kg of well-rotted human manure and urine to reduce physiological fruit drop and promote normal development of fruit.
F. Foliar spray fertilization of date palm
After leaf development and before flowering (including flowering period), nitrogen fertilizer is the main fertilizer, generally spray 0.3% to 0.5% urea. After flowering and young fruit development to the fruit before maturity to phosphorus and potassium fertilizer, generally can spray 0.2% -0.3% potassium phosphate. Spray once every half month, nitrogen fertilizer and phosphorus and potassium fertilizer spray 2 times each. After the fruit is harvested and then spray 0.4% urea in time to delay the senescence of the leaves. Improve photosynthetic products and increase the accumulation of nutrients in the tree.
G. Fertilization method of date palm
Generally use furrow application, specifically three kinds of circular furrow application, radial furrow application and rotational furrow application.
1.Ring and furrow application method for date palm
In addition, a circular fertilization trench 40-50 cm deep and 30-40 cm wide was dug along the peripheral projection of the canopy.Fertilizer will applied into the ditch, and the ditch will filled with soil in time.
2.Radial furrow application method for date palm
However, about 80 cm from the main trunk to the periphery of the canopy, so dig 6-8 radial fertilization trenches 24-45 cm deep and wide, shallow and deep inside and outside for fertilization.
3.Rotational ditching method for date palm
Fertilization ditches of 40cm in depth and width on both sides of the canopy periphery (east-west or north-south), depending on the size of the canopy, are dug, and fertilization is rotated from east to west and from north to south in alternate years.
H. Fertilization of date palm
Generally use the hole application, but also can use the trench application.
①Cave application method for date palm
Similarly depending on the size of the tree canopy, therefore different number of fertilizer pits were dug under the tree with a depth of about 15cm.
②Ditch application method for date palm
First of all, it is under the canopy of the tree in different directions from east to west and north to south. Secondly, dig a shallow fertilization trench 15cm deep and 10cm wide, and finally prevent fertilizer volatile water ground date palm tree fertilization should combined with watering. The fertilizer should combined with rain to dissolve the fertilizer in time.
③ Foliar spray fertilization of date palm
In order to save labor investment, foliar fertilizer spraying can combined with pest and disease control, water spraying and growth regulator spraying at the same time during flowering period.