A. Fertilizers commonly used in nursery
Fertilizers commonly used in nursery, there are many types of fertilizers, which can be divided into fast-acting fertilizers and late-acting fertilizers according to how quickly they become effective.Fertilizers can divided into organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers according to the availability of organic materials. According to the main nutrients contained in the fertilizer, it is divided into nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer.
B. Principles of nursery fertilization
(1) Rational fertilization
Scientific and reasonable fertilization in order to achieve good results.
(2) improper fertilization
Not only can not improve the yield and quality of seedlings, but sometimes get the opposite result.
(3) The best fertilization effect
Must be based on the understanding of the soil and climate conditions of the nursery. With reference to the characteristics of the seedling species, choose the appropriate fertilizer, a variety of fertilizers mixed or used in conjunction, and scientifically determine the amount of fertilizer application. The correct fertilization method must used, and must combined with reasonable tillage system and other measures.
C. Nursery soil conditions
Fertilizer should applied according to the soil nutrient condition of the nursery, and whatever elements it lacks should applied.
①Soil with sticky texture
Poor permeability, in order to improve its physical properties, fertilization should be based on organic fertilizer. Sandy soils have little organic matter and poor water and fertility retention, so organic fertilizers should be the mainstay. Fertilizer should applied in small amounts several times.
Choose alkaline fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer selection nitrate nitrogen is better. Phosphorus in acidic soil is more easily fixed. Potassium, calcium and magnesium oxide elements are easy to lose, so calcium and magnesium phosphate fertilizer and phosphate powder and other fertilizers should applied, as well as grass ash soluble potash or lime.
Choose acidic fertilizer, nitrogen fertilizer should used ammonia nitrogen fertilizer. Such as ammonium sulfate or ammonium chloride, etc. The effect is better. Also with more organic fertilizers to improve the physical properties of the soil.
C. Climatic conditions of the nursery
①Area with warm and rainy climate
Organic matter decomposes quickly and mineral nutrients are easily lost. The application of organic fertilizer is suitable for slow decomposition and semi-rotten organic fertilizer.
②Rainy fertilizer chasing times
Fertilizer should applied more often and the amount should be less each time.
③Cold climate areas
organic matter decomposition is slow, with organic fertilizers can be slightly higher degree of decomposition. But do not over-rotting, so as not to lose nitrogen.
④ rainfall less chasing fertilizer amount
Because of the rainfall less mineral nutrients lost less, the number of fertilizer chasing can be less than the above situation. Each time the amount can increased appropriately.
⑤ Biological characteristics of tree species
Different species of seedlings need different amounts of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
D. Multiple fertilizers for nurseries used in conjunction
For example, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic fertilizers are effective when used together. Because the three elements used together can promote each other to play a role. But mixed fertilizers must pay attention to the relationship between various fertilizers, not any fertilizer can be used in conjunction. Some fertilizers can not mixed together, once mixed will reduce the effectiveness of fertilizer.
E. Fertilization method
The soil fertility of nursery land is generally poor. In order to improve the soil, base fertilizer is indispensable, and sandy land needs more.
1. Base fertilizer
Generally, organic fertilizer is the main fertilizer. Such as compost, green manure and turf soil. The same organic fertilizers work better when mixed or combined with mineral fertilizers.
2. Fertilizer application method of base fertilizer
Generally, the fertilizer is scattered comprehensively on a thousand beds before plowing, and turned all into the tillage layer when plowing.
3. After plowing
Then apply the base fertilizer, bad control of the appropriate depth.
4. The depth of base fertilizer application
It should be around 15~20 cm.
5. Seed fertilizer
It is the fertilizer applied near the seeds before or at the time of sowing. Generally, fast-acting phosphorus fertilizer is the main fertilizer. Seed fertilizer not only provides nutrients to seedlings, but also improves the germination rate in the nursery. Thus, it can improve the yield and quality of seedlings.